Common law liens require no writing to be valid. Shoes, dry cleaning, machines and anything which requires an owner to surrender possession for repair, cleaning or servicing are all subject to a common law lien upon neglect of payment for services rendered. Government liens, however, are a totally government controlled commodity.
Government liens need not relate to anything in reality, because they can only be created by statutory law, which means Bills enacted by a Congress of the United States, pursuant to Section 7 of Article I of the Constitution of September 17, 1787, and presented to the President of the United States for his approval or objection. We know by the way George Washington, the first President of the United States of America, acquired the Office of President of the United States that Office is just an employment without the authority of a sovereign government. How could there be two Presidents both with sovereign power? The President of the United States is the employee.
The Office of President of the United States is an employment, because it is the one that is paid and is not vested with any power of a sovereign government. The Confederacy of the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation of November 15, 1777, is a sovereign government, but only with respect to the delegated powers located in those Articles. It is widely known and noted, as incontrovertible fact, the Articles of Confederation granted no power of legislation or taxation over the American people. The absence of government power in a document that so closely followed the Declaration of Independence by just a few months should surprise no one.
The Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776 announced the formal repudiation of a British government recognized by the nations of the world as sovereign. The American victory in the Revolution that followed the Declaration of Independence resulted in the permanent removal of the power of the English monarchy south of Canada. Neither the individual States nor the Confederacy of those States, the United States of America under the Articles of Confederation of November 15, 1777 succeeded to the sovereign authority once held by his Britannic Majesty, King George III.
Government liens can only be created by government employees in territory owned by and ceded to the United States of America, because unlike the English common law no one person is injured by the non-payment of the amount demanded. The only sovereign form of government that can be injured or demand payment for that injury is the United States of America. That sovereignty is recognized every time a civil or criminal case is brought, because all such cases are brought by the United States of America as plaintiff.
Common law requires an injury or damage to the property of another. The person who has suffered an injury or whose property has been damaged may make a demand upon the party at fault. When the federal government claims someone owes a debt or has an unsatisfied obligation, it is the President of the United States of America alone, who has the executive power to make the demand for payment. That President, however, would be limited to the authority of the Articles of Confederation and asking the States to please send money to the United States in Congress assembled, if the May 25, 1787 secret Constitutional Convention hadn’t come up with the trick of creating two almost identical Offices: the Office of President of the United States and the Office of President of the United States of America. George Washington was elected on February 4, 1789 to be President of the United States of America, but he took the oral oath to the Office of President of the United States. That Presidential merger was pulled off brilliantly by George Washington, who is rightly recognized as the father of that country.
If you think the United States of America should be different from the one George Washington was able to create by being both President of the United States of America and President of the United States, you are not alone. My Students want to tell the rest of the story, but to do so they need to know the truth. Won’t you join them by contacting me at firstname.lastname@example.org and asking about enrollment?
Dr. Eduardo M. Rivera